By: Kashif Chishti
Literal meaning of cloning is:
“Creating the same kind of thing”
For better understanding we can give two examples:
Cloning is such a process that many identical copies of a draft can be made through a photocopy machine.
And this copy contains the same features as the original draft.
Similarly, copies made through biological processes also fall into the category of cloning. Through this process not only molecules but also plants and animals can also be created.
The first type of these clones can be called molecular cloning and subsequent cloning is called animal cloning.
In the biological language, the process of cloning goes beyond sexual reproduction. It is used in a non-sexual way. DNA plays a central role in the cloning process. Here we will study two types of cloning Gene cloning and Animal cloning.
The DNA is inside the nucleus of the stem in the form of thread chromosomes or in other words DNA is a major omponent in the structure of the chromosome and causes all the inherent properties. It is made of nucleotide.
A DNA fragment for gene cloning or a gene that is destined to be cloned is folded into another DNA molecule, resulting in DNA recombination.
The host cell not only produces numerous other cells like its own, but also the replication of the gene that is inserted into it.
The main idea of animal cloning is the same as gene cloning. Cloning is usually intended for animals that have unusual properties and the purpose is the welfare of the human beings such as high-milk animals, having excellent productive and high-fat animals.
Animal Cloning Procedure
This topic has been widely debated since the birth of a sheep named Dolly in 1997, even though cloning experiments were done in the fifties, but those experiments were mostly on frogs.
At the first stage of Dolly’s birth, molecules from the pistachio of a six-year-old sheep were isolated . They were excluded in the laboratory to avoid distribution. These cells were cultured at specific doses and temperatures.
In the second stage a second sheep was selected, which was intended to get egg, the center of the obtained egg was removed.
In the third stage, cultured cells obtained from the milk gland cells of the first sheep, were merged into the egg of the second lamb. As a result of which the zygote that formed was placed in the cervix of the third sheep. The third sheep was called a borrowed mother or foster mother, who after a fixed period gave birth to a female sheep, known as Dolly.
Dolly was born on July 4, 1997 at four o’clock and weighed 6.6 kilograms. She was a healthy sheep.
Benefits of Cloning
It can make copies of animals of a specialty. Very powerful, intelligent and beautiful clones can be produced.
Cloning is providing a lot of drugs for diabetics. Insulin is also produced by cloning.
Human growth hormone, hepatitis B vaccine and hemophilia treatment also include cloning products.
Greater revolution can be triggered by gene cloning in agriculture. Plants can be grown in very cold areas.
In the cloning process, DNA can sometimes be destroyed, causing many complex and incurable diseases in the created clones which can shorten life.
Cloning of Dolly was tested at 700 OV sites and then in the process it was created.
Many embryos are lost in this process.
Human cloning can be a risk of a huge increase in the cloning population.
A child born as a result of human cloning will feel inferior. He will always think of himself as a second-class citizen.
In addition, there can be a kind of human beings born into the world that will increase the crime rate